Electoral participation varies greatly by country, and can be influenced by whether or not voters are given an incentive or how much information they actually have about candidates. IPA research in this area has ranged from the impact of voter knowledge in Sierra Leone to voter incentives, such as bribes, in the Philippines.

While political debates are often considered an integral part of campaign strategy, there is little definitive evidence on whether they affect how people vote.

Promotional political posters in the Philippines

Vote-buying and vote-selling obstruct the democratic process, yet they remain pervasive in many developing democracies.

There is substantial evidence that media sources have identifiable political slants, but there has been relatively little rigorous study into the impact of media on political views and behaviors...