Food insecurity and poverty are persistent problems for many rural households in Zambia, and can lead to heavy reliance on limited natural resources. Pressure on arable land is increasing, and soils are gradually being degraded by unsustainable farming practices and reduced fallow periods. Over time, farmers clear forests to make way for new agricultural land, in the process depleting wildlife habitats and valuable forest resources. There is an emerging approach to address these complex issues called the Mitengo Zambia Smallholder Reforestation and Food Security Program. The approach is to reduce pressure and increase yields on farmland through improved farming practices and activities focused on removing the drivers of deforestation. The program engages with smallholder farmers to plant nitrogen-fixing indigenous tree species in agroforestry inter-cropping systems. The resulting higher crop yields provide an ongoing source of food security and additional income to farmers. In addition, the program takes steps, by working with rural stakeholders, to reduce deforestation threats.